Casting is a process by which a melted fluid is introduced into a mold, and then allowed to cool in the shape of the mold. The rough pattern is then turned out to make a fabricated part or casing. However four main elements are used in the process of casting such as pattern, mold, cores, and the part. The pattern, from which the mold is made, creates a corresponding hollow space in the casting material. Whereas cores are used to produce tunnels or creating holes in the finished mold and the part is the final output of the process.
Moreover the casting process is mainly subdivided in two distinct categories: the expendable mold casting and nonexpendable mold casting. Expendable mold casting involves, the common process of molding such as sand, plastic, shell and investment moldings. All these molding techniques use temporary and not reusable molds, and even require gravity to help force the molten fluid into casting hollow spaces. In the expendable molding process, molds can only be used once.
However, preparation of the sand mold requires less time, and just needs a pattern, which can stamp out the casting template. The sand molding technique is used mainly for processing low-temperature steel, aluminum, Magnesium machining, and nickel alloys.
Similarly plaster casting which resembles the sand casting process is used in producing non-ferrous metal parts. Even the shell molding machining technique is used for producing aluminum and magnesium parts. The investment molding technique is also used in expandable mold casting, which yields exceptionally fine quality products of all types of metal.
However nonexpendable mold castings techniques are different from the expandable technique, as the molds used in the nonexpendable technique can be reused. Products can be produced using four different ways such as permanent, die, centrifugal, and continuous casting. The highly automated permanent mold casting technique is typically used for forming iron, aluminum, magnesium, and copper based alloy parts.
Similarly the continuous casting process is used for making steel, aluminum, and copper parts. However the technique can give quality products and enables better control over the casting process. The recent developments is casting molding machining techniques has greatly helped the manufacturing industry to produce better quality products and with higher efficiency.